Glossary


Glossary for the Chronological Summary of Ministry of Labour Documents Pertaining to Homes Foundry Sarnia, Ontario 1950 - 1988

Chronoligical Summary of Ministry Documents Pertaining to Holmes Foundry

The chronological summary of Ministry documents pertaining to Holmes Foundry is a comprehensive reference guide that lists the documents surrendered to the CAW through the Freedom of Information Act. All documents are listed in chronological order beginning in 1950 and ending July 29, 1988. All pertinent information is footnoted on the accompanying page.

All dates in the following glossary and referencing index for the chronological summary that are in bold print indicate documents referenced in the main Holmes Foundry Report.

Glossary and Referencing Index for Chronological Summary

Aluminum Oxides: Daily exposure due to the cupola repair work. The cupola repairmen tore down the inside coating of the cupola and relined it. They used "Dixipatch" a red clay containing trace amounts of aluminum and iron oxides. (October 11, 1984, January 8, 1987, January 22, 1987, March 6, 1987, March 12, 1987)

Amines: Fugitive emissions from Cold Box gassing core main process. The Isocure Cold Box method for making cores uses a phenolic resin (phenol - formaldehyde) a binder which is reacted with the isocyanate mixture in the presence of an amine (DMEA) catalyst to form a solid urethane resin. Resins decompose and produce various gases and fumes when a catalyst is added. Some of the most common gases produced are carbon monoxide, hydrogen cyanide, methane, ammonia, phenols, amines, and aldehydes. Amines cause irritation of your eyes and respiratory tract. (September 27, 1979, July 16, 1980, November 21, 1983, November 29, 1983)

Ammonia: Fugitive emissions from Cold Boxes. The Isocure Cold Box method for making cores uses a phenolic resin (phenol - formaldehyde) a binder which is reacted with the isocyanate mixture in the presence of an amine (DMEA) catalyst to form a solid urethane resin. The phenol-formaldehyde binder is mixed with a xylene-toluene solvent to ensure the mixture's viscosity. The mixture is blown in at the core mould with nitrogen and small amounts of ammonia may be formed. Resins decompose and produce various gases and fumes when a catalyst is added. Some of the most common gases produced are carbon monoxide, hydrogen cyanide, methane, ammonia, phenols, amines, and aldehydes. (July 16, 1980, January 4, 1984, January 16, 1984, January 8, 1987, January 22, 1987, March 6, 1987, March 12, 1987)

Asbestos: Sparse documentation regarding asbestos. However, there is corroborating data to prove migrating exposures from Caposite and Holmes Insulation in the WSIB chronological summary pertaining to Holmes Foundry. (February 10, 1975, February 17, 1975, November 5, 1979)

Ashland (Resin & Chemicals) Release Agent: (October 17, 1974)

Bentonite: (February 16, 1977, February 18, 1977)

Calcium Phosphate Dust: (August 7, 1980, October 11, 1984, October 11, 1984)

Chromium: Fugitive emissions from Cold Boxes (January 8, 1987, January 22, 1987, March 6, 1987, March 12, 1987)

Cold Box Core Process: (October 2, 1973, November 30, 1973, December 3, 1973, December 14, 1973,October 17, 1974, November 4, 1974, November 19, 1974, May 17, 1977, June 19, 1978, August 29, 1978, September 8, 1978, September 28, 1978, November 3, 1978, September 27, 1979, December 5, 1979, December 17, 1980, December 19, 1980, April 21, 1983, August 24, 1983, August 30, 1983, January 16, 1984,October 10, 1984, January 15, 1985, April 2, 1985, August 23, 1985, October 3, 1985, February 11, 1986, April, 24, 1986, January 8, 1987)

Contact Cement: (November 5, 1979)

Contaminated Settling Ponds: From acid-scrub pollution control devices. Wastewater would be stored in settling ponds on company property. On dry days, front-end loaders would be required to fill buckets with contaminated water and spread throughout the yard on the dirt lanes to keep dust down. (June 14, 1984, September 21, 1984, October 11, 1984, November 28, 1984)

Copper: (December 6, 1983, January 4, 1984, January 16, 1984)

Cyanides: Resins decompose and produce various gases and fumes when a catalyst is added. Some of the most common gases produced are carbon monoxide, hydrogen cyanide, methane, ammonia, phenols, amines, and aldehydes. (July 16, 1980)

Dimethylbenzene: (January 8, 1987, January 22, 1987, March 6, 1987, March 12, 1987)

Dimethylethylamine (DMEA): DMEA is used as a catalyst in the Cold Box core making process. Health effects include; eye, nose, throat, lung and skin irritant. Sensitiser - can produce allergic-type reactions resulting in dermatitis or asthma-like responses. DMEA is known to form nitrosamines. Nitrosamines can cause cancer. (September 28, 1978, October 3, 1978, October 5, 1978, October 20, 1978, November 3, 1978, December 11, 1978, March 5, 1979, November 19, 1979, December 5, 1979, July 16, 1980, July 31, 1980, August 24, 1983,January 16, 1984, July 3, 1984, July 20, 1984, August 14, 1984, January 15, 1985, April 2, 1985, August 23, 1985, October 3, 1985, February 11, 1986, February 26, 1986, August 24, 1986, January 8, 1987, January 22, 1987, March 6, 1987, March 12, 1987)

Emergency Lighting: Management had to be harangued to comply with simple safety devices as emergency lighting. (February 26, 1976, September 8, 1976, January 17, 1977)

Epoxy Resins: Used in foundry for pattern making. Health effects include; allergic reactions to the skin and lungs; irritant to the skin, throat, lungs, nose and eyes; nausea, lung damage, and kidney damage.

Explosion: Many explosion investigations that pertain to the Isocure Cold box mould Process. (January 29, 1976, January 30, 1976, April 12, 1976, April 13, 1976, February 11, 1977, May 24, 1977, May 25, 1977, June 2, 1978, May 17, 1979, November 8, 1979, February 12, 1982)

Formaldehyde: The Isocure Cold Box method for making cores uses a phenolic resin (phenol - formaldehyde) a binder which is reacted with the isocyanate mixture in the presence of an amine (DMEA) catalyst to form a solid urethane resin. Formaldehyde fumes cause irritation of your eyes and respiratory tract. (March 22, 1977, September 27, 1979, July 16, 1980, December 6, 1983, January 4, 1984, January 16, 1984, January 8, 1987, January 22, 1987, March 6, 1987, March 12, 1987)

Guarding and Guardrails: Throughout documents.

Heat: (March 6, 1978, September 11, 1978, November 5, 1979)

Iron Oxide: Daily exposure due to the cupola repair work. The cupola repairmen tore down the inside coating of the cupola and relined it. They used "Dixipatch" a red clay containing trace amounts of aluminum and iron oxides. (June 16, 1981, August 13, 1981, December 6, 1983, January 4, 1984, January 16, 1984, October 11, 1984, January 8, 1987, January 22, 1987, March 6, 1987, March 12, 1987)

Isocure Catalyst 702: Ashland Chemicals: (October 17, 1974)

Isopropyl Alcohol: Is sprayed over the surface of the cores in one operation of the manufacturing process. (December 12, 1985, January 3, 1986, February 26, 1986)

Kerosene: Sprayed on castings. Overspray would float to the other workers in the vicinity, causing irritant to the eyes, skin, coughing and nausea. This was common. (December 14, 1973, November 19, 1974)

Leacote - Solvent - DMC - 3201: (October 17, 1974)

Lead: Exposure due to many causes. Mainly by contaminating through mixing raw metals into ovens. Also fugitive emissions from Cold Boxes (June 25, 1979, December 6, 1983, January 4, 1984, January 16, 1984, October 11, 1984, October 15, 1984, January 8, 1987, January 22, 1987, March 6, 1987, March 12, 1987)

Lockout Programme: (March 5, 1975, September 10, 1982, October 21, 1982, November 1, 1982, November 2, 1982, December 7, 1982, December 13, 1982, January 10, 1983, January 27, 1983, February 7, 1983, March 10, 1983, March 23, 1983)

Maganese: Fugitive emissions from Cold Boxes (December 6, 1983, January 4, 1984, January 16, 1984, October 11, 1984)

Magnesium: Fugitive emissions from Cold Boxes (December 6, 1983, January 4, 1984, January 16, 1984, October 11, 1984)

Metal Cleaner 800-32-800 (N-Methyl-2-Pyrrolidone): N-METHYL-2-PYRROLIDONE: Metal cleaner that was sprayed on and applied to jacket machines in the North Core room. Workers often complained of odour. (October 17, 1974, November 19, 1974, December 11, 1974, December 17, 1974, October 27, 1976, April 15, 1977)

Methylbenzene: (January 8, 1987, January 22, 1987, March 6, 1987, March 12, 1987)

Methyl Chloroform (NAPHTHA) (material trade name: SKL-HF-Magnaflux Corp.): Is brushed on warm castings to aid in the detection of fractures or cracks Main ingredient is naphtha. Health effects include Nervous system effects such as lack of balance, dizziness, headaches, and confusion; some evidence that it may cause liver cancer. (October 21, 1981, October 23, 1981, December 4, 1981, January 5, 1982, February 25, 1982, March 22, 1982)

Methylene Bisphenyl Isocyanate (MDI): (January 24, 1973, January 21, 1973, November 30, 1973, December 14, 1973, January 2, 1974, January 3, 1974, January 10, 1974, January 15, 1974, October 17, 1974, November 19, 1974,August 29, 1978, September, 1978, September 8, 1978, September 11, 1978, September 15, 1978, September 18, 1978, September 25, 1978, September 28, 1978, October 3, 1978, October 5, 1978, October 20, 1978, November 3, 1978, December 11, 1978, September 27, 1979,December 5, 1979,August 24, 1983, September 6, 1983, November 2, 1983, December 6, 1983, January 4, 1984, January 16, 1984,October 3, 1984,October 10, 1984, October 15, 1984, November 12, 1985, December 2, 1985, December 31, 1985, February 11, 1986, January 8, 1987, January 22, 1987, March 6, 1987, March 12, 1987, March 13, 1987, October 7, 1987, October 16, 1987, April 27, 1987)

Mould Release (Black Diamond B-500 - X): (ZIP SLIP) (March 3, 1978, March 21, 1978, March 29, 1978, August 29, 1978, September, 1978, September 8, 1978, August 15, 1984)

NAPHTHA (see Methyl Chloroform): In the form of methyl chloroform, which was brushed on engine castings to inspect fractures or cracks. Health effects include Nervous system effects such as lack of balance, dizziness, headaches, and confusion; some evidence that it may cause liver cancer. (October 21, 1981, October 23, 1981, December 4, 1981, January 4, 1982, February 25, 1982, March 22, 1982)

Nitrosamine: DMEA is used as a catalyst in the Cold Box core making process. Health effects include; eye, nose, throat, lung and skin irritant. Sensitiser - can produce allergic-type reactions resulting in dermatitis or asthma-like responses. DMEA is known to form nitrosamines. Nitrosamines can cause cancer. (December 6, 1983, January 4, 1984, January 16, 1984)

Noise: Evidence supporting the claims of hearing impairment from Holmes Foundry workers. (September 19, 1952, September 12, 1955, September 26, 1973, October 2, 1973, October 23, 1973, October 24, 1973, November 23, 1973, July 3, 1975, January 9, 1978, June 23, 1978, June 25, 1979, April 18, 1983, April 20, 1983, August 20, 1983,January 11, 1984, November 13, 1986)

Phenol: Mixed with formaldehyde, polymeric isocyanate, DMEA and triethylene as a catalyst. The Isocure Cold Box method for making cores uses a phenolic resin (phenol - formaldehyde) a binder which is reacted with the isocyanate mixture in the presence of an amine (DMEA) catalyst to form a solid urethane resin. Phenol emissions cause irritation of your eyes and respiratory tract. (September 27, 1979, July 16, 1980, December 6, 1983, January 4, 1984, January 16, 1984, January 8, 1987, January 22, 1987, March 6, 1987, March 12, 1987)

Polychlorinated Biphenyls (PCBs): Leaking from transformers above the emergency generator room. (May 29, 1986, June 2, 1986, June 11, 1986, June 26, 1986)

Poly (Ethylene-Propylene) Glycol: Was 10% of SKL-HF-Magnaflux Corp. mixture to check casting cracks. (January 5, 1982)

Safety Policy: (July 24, 1972, October 31, 1974, October 24, 1975, June 26, 1978, February 7, 1983, February 21, 1983, March 2, 1983, March 16, 1983, March 30, 1983, October 6, 1983)

Silica Dust: There is clear documentation supporting exposures in excess of the TLV from the earliest documents till the final piece of correspondence. Silica (alpha-quartz, free crystaline silica) can lead to Silicosis, a disabling, progressive, and sometimes fatal lung disease, characterised by a persistent cough, shortness of breath, wheezing, decreased lung function. Silicosis increases susceptibility to tuberculosis - called silicotuberculosis. (Sept. 19,1952, September 12, 1955, December 10, 1965, August 11, 1967, September 19, 1968, October 31, 1968, October 2, 1972, September 26, 1973, October 2, 1973, October 23, 1973, October 24, 1973, November 23, 1973, December 11, 1973, January 3, 1974, January 10, 1974, January 15, 1974, February 6, 1974, July 3, 1975, October 16, 1975, November 29, 1976, January 27, 1977, May 17, 1977,May 19, 1977, May 27, 1977, May 30, 1977, June 15, 1977, June 21, 1977, August 8, 1977, August 10, 1977, August 15, 1977, August 23, 1977, August 29, 1977, August 31, 1977, September 19, 1977, December 14, 1977, January 9, 1978, March 2, 1978, June 19, 1978, June 23, 1978, November 3, 1978, June 25, 1978, June 25, 1979, October 26, 1979, December 11 - 12, 1979, January 30, 1980, February 12, 1980, March 20, 1980, May 14, 1980, July 31, 1980, December 17, 1980, December 19, 1980, January 8, 1981, March 6, 1981, March 26, 1981, May 19, 1981, September 28, 1981, October 8, 1981, October 14, 1981, November 16, 1981, December 17, 1981, December 21, 1981, June 3, 1982, June 22, 1982, July 15, 1982, July 19, 1982, July 28, 1982, January 27, 1983, February 2, 1983, April 21, 1983, September 6, 1983, January 11, 1984, October 11, 1984, October 15, 1984, September 30, 1985, October 3, 1985, October 18, 1985, November 12, 1985, November 27, 1985, December 2, 1985, December 5, 1985, December 12, 1985, December 31, 1985, January 3, 1986, February 11, 1986, February 26, 1986, April 28, 1986, July 7, 1986, July 26, 1986, November 18, 1986,January 22, 1987,March 12, 1987, March 13, 1987,October 7, 1987, October 16, 1987, April 27, 1987, July 29, 1987)

Sulpher Oxide (Iron Oxide) Fumes: From inadequacies of the ventilation system at the cupola work areas. (June 19, 1978, June 16, 1981, August 11, 1981, August 13, 1981, October 11, 1984)

Teressco - 52 - 507094: Imperial Oil Limited: (October 17, 1974)

TDI (Toluene-2 Diisocyanate): Mixed with MDI in the cold Box core gassing process. (August 24, 1983, August 30, 1983, December 6, 1983, January 4, 1984, January 16, 1984, October 15, 1984, November 12, 1985, January 8, 1987, January 22, 1987, March 6, 1987, March 12, 1987)

Toluol (Toluene): 1-part Toluol mixed with 1-part Trichloroethylene and 2-part Trimethylbenzenes, which is then painted onto outer casing of engine block to check for faults/cracks. (Brushed then air blown with no ventilation provided). Also, the Isocure Cold Box method for making cores uses a phenolic resin (phenol - formaldehyde) a binder which is reacted with the isocyanate mixture in the presence of an amine (DMEA) catalyst to form a solid urethane resin. The phenol-formaldehyde binder is mixed with a xylene-toluene solvent to ensure the mixture's viscosity. (September 26, 1968, December 6, 1983, January 4, 1984, January 16, 1984)

111-Trichloroethanane: Used as a dilutent in the penetrant application of naphtha (March 22, 1982)

Trichloroethylene (Spotcheck Developer): Also known as methyl chloroform is dabbed on engine blocks to locate cracks. Health effects include: Nervous system effects such as lack of balance, dizziness, headaches, and confusion; some evidence that it may cause liver cancer. (May 30, 1968, June 7, 1968, June 20, 1968, September 26, 1968)

Triethylamine (TEA): In early Cold Box Isocure process years all testing was done for TEA when actually the chemical present was DMEA. Later TEA TLV was used to test and targeted for Dimethylethylamine (DMEA) because of similarity to TEA. Health effects this colourless liquid with a fishy odour include; eye irritation skin conditions, lack of co-ordination and loss of balance, slowed responses, signs and symptoms of being drunk. (January 2, 1974, January 10, 1974, January 15, 1974, November 4, 1974, November 19, 1974, March 5, 1975, May 19, 1977, May 27, 1977, August 29, 1978, September, 1978, September 8, 1978,September 28, 1978, October 3, 1978, October 5, 1978, October 20, 1978, November 6, 1979, December 5, 1979, January 16, 1984)

Trimethylbenzenes (Spotcheck Penetraul): Sprayed on engine blocks to inspect integrity or cracks. Also source from: fugitive emissions from Cold Boxes(September 5, 1968, September 26, 1968, January 4, 1984, January 16, 1984)

Welding Fumes: Orders/Directives were issued regarding inadequate ventilation for the welding operations. (August 11, 1976)

Xylene: Fugitive emissions from Cold Boxes. The Isocure Cold Box method for making cores uses a phenolic resin (phenol - formaldehyde) a binder which is reacted with the isocyanate mixture in the presence of an amine (DMEA) catalyst to form a solid urethane resin. The phenol-formaldehyde binder is mixed with a xylene-toluene solvent to ensure the mixture's viscosity. (December 6, 1983, January 4, 1984, January 16, 1984, January 8, 1987, January 22, 1987, March 6, 1987, March 12, 1987)

Zinc: By-product of foundry process: fugitive emissions from Cold Boxes. (January 4, 1984, January 16, 1984, October 11, 1984)

Potential Carcinogens in Foundries

Sand: Asbestos contamination in olivine sand; radiation in zirconium silicates; hafnium (a natural alpha-particle emitter); radon daughters.

Polynuclear Aromatic Hydrocarbons (PNA's): In pouring and shake-out areas, as a pyrolysis product of organic materials. Benzopyrene (BaP) is a type of PNA. It is also found in coke oven emissions, and is a known human carcinogen.

Asbestos: Ladle lining; furnace lining; steam pipe insulation.

Talc: Used as a release agent between the castings and the mould - on its own or as a result of asbestos contamination.

Nitrosamiens: Shell moulding, chemical binder mixing areas. Nitrosamines are usually formed as a result of the combination of certain raw materials (an amine + nitrosating agent). They can be formed in foundries using the Isocure process.

Example:
Triethylamine + nitrogen = nitrosamines
or DMEA (dimethylethylamine) = nitrogen = nitrosamines

Solvents: A number of solvents are used, primarily in mixing areas, but also come off as pyrolysis products in pouring and shake-out. These solvents may include benzene, toluene, and others.

In September of 1983, the Union supplied the Ministry with vast evidence and information regarding the Cold box core gassing process. In their correspondence they offered many viable solutions for safer alternatives. None of the recommendations were forwarded to the company.

i.e. - using crushed walnuts instead of silica sand when sandblasting.


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